OSCE Notes in Otology cases

Station 1:

Look at the patient's face.

Examine his right external auditory canal

fac_pal.jpgramsay.jpg

1. Name the syndrome

Ramsay Hunt syndrome

2. Name the causative organism

Varizella zoster virus

3. Name the other areas where rashes can be seen in this syndrome

Anterior 2/3 of tongue, soft palate, external auditory canal, and pinna

Station 2:

Name the various eye care procedures which should be followed in treating the patient at the previous station

1. Wearing of eye glasses to prevent corneal damage

2. Instilling moisturizing eye drops to prevent exposure keratitis

Station 3:

siegele

Name the instrument

Siegle's pneumatic aural speculum

Name it uses

1. Examination of ear drum

2. Testing the mobility of the ear drum

Write down its magnification factor

2.5 times

Station 4:

asper.jpg

Examine the right ear of this patient

1. Describe the lesion

Cotton wool like mass seen occluding the external auditory canal. Black spots are also seen

2. What could be the probable diagnosis ?

Otomycosis

3. What could be the causative organisms?

Aspergillus Niger - black spots

Candida - Cotton wool like mass

Station 5:

Perform otoscopy on this patient

ret.jpg

Comment on the ear drum

1. Loss of light reflex

2. Prominence of handle of malleus

3. Loss of mobility of ear drum

4. Retracted ear drum

Station 6:

Name the structures numbered

ret_name.jpg

1. Round window

2. Stapedial tendon

3. Pyramid

4. Long process of incus

Station 7:

Write down the possible causes of bilateral retracted ear drum

1. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

2. Following adenotonsillectomy (Iatrogenic)

3. Cleft palate

Station 8:

Comment on ear discharge of this patient

What could be the possible diagnosis ?

cholesteatoma2.jpg

1. Scanty

2. Foul smelling

3. Blood tinged (sometimes)

4. CSOM with attic cholesteatoma

Station 9:

Name this condition seen on the ear drum

Enumerate 3 causes for it

tymp_scle

1. Tympanosclerosis

2. Due to resolved otitis media

3. Trauma

4. Grommet insertion (Iatrogenic)

Station 10:

65 years old man

Known diabetic for 15 years on poor glycemic control

c/o pain left ear - 1 month

Blood stained discharge from left ear - 1 month

Tragal tenderness left side - 15 days

Inability to close left eye - 10 days

Otoscopic finding:

moe1.jpg

1. What could be the possible diagnosis ?

2. Name the probable causative organism

3. Name the choice of antibiotic

Malignant otitis externa

Psuedomonas aeruginosa is the probable causative organism

Carbenicillin / IV generation cephalosporins

Station 11:

Enumerate Levenson's criteria for malignant otitis externa

1. Refractory otitis externa

2. Severe nocturnal otalgia

3. Purulent otorrhoea

4. Granulation tissue in external canal

5. Growth of pseudomonas aeruginosa in specimen cultured from external canal

6. Presence of diabetes mellitus / other immunocompromised states

Station 12:

5 years old child

c/o excrutiating pain in right ear - 6 hours

H/O URI - 2 days

Otoscopy showed:

AOM.jpg

Name the diagnosis

Name the various stages of this disorder

Acute otitis media

Stages of acute otitis media:

1. Stage of hyperemia

2. Stage of exudation

3. Stage of suppuration

4. Stage of resolution

Station 13:

Name the surgery performed in AOM

Indication for surgery in AOM

Myringotomy

AOM which does not respond to adequate medical managment within 48 hours

Station 14:

Post surgical otoscopic finding of a patient with AOM

myrin.jpg

Name the instrument used for this surgical procedure

Name the possible surgical complications of myringotomy

Myringotomy knife

Complications include:

1. Dislocation of incudostapedial joint

2. Injury to corda tympani nerve

3. Persistent perforation

Station 15:

50 years old female patient came with

c/o

Pulsatile tinnitus - 3 years right ear

Hard of hearing - right ear 2 years

Otoscopic findings:

glo_ju.jpg

Pulsatile reddish mass seen behind the intact ear drum

Name the probable lesion

Name the classic sign shown here

What is the role of siegalization in this patient ?

Glomus jugulare

Rising sun sign (Red mass seen behind the intact ear drum)

On siegalization the reddish mass behind the intact drum blances (Brown's sign)

Station 16:

Name the possible clinical features of glomus jugulare

1. Deafness

2. Tinnitus (pulsatile)

3. Imbalance

4. Otorrhoea

5. Facial palsy

6. Endocrine symptoms

7. Head ache

8. Visual disturbances

Station 17:

Differential diagnosis of this lesion:

red_drum.jpg

This is a red drum

Could be due to:

1. AOM - associated with otalgia

2. High jugular bulb - Normal variant. CT scan shows intact jugular foramen

3. Glomus jugulare - associated with pulsatile tinnitus, conductive deafness, positive Brown's sign. CT scan shows eorsion of jugular foramen.

Station 18:

40 years old male patient

C/O swelling behind left ear - 7 days

Pain in left ear - 4 days

H/O ear discharge - 8 years

sub_peri

What differential diagnosis you can offer ?

1. Subperiosteal abscess

2. Suppurated retroauricular lymph node

Station 19:

30 years old male patient came with c/o

Pain right ear - 1 week

Blocking sensation right ear - 10 days

Mild discharge from right ear - 1 week

Otoscopy shows:

k_o.jpg

Enumerate otoscopic findings

Mention the possible diagnosis

Mention in brief the pathophysiology of this disorder

Whitish mass admixed with wax can be seen in the external canal

The external canal appears widened

Probable diagnosis - Keratosis obturans

Kertosis obturans occur due to faulty epithelial migration of external canal skin. This movement occurs in a reverse direction in these patients (i.e. towards the ear drum)

Station 20:

Perform three finger test on this patient

Greet the patient first

Explain the procedure

Reassure the patient

Three fingers are used to perform this test.

Middle finger is used to apply pressure over the well of the concha - Tenderness in this area indicates tenderness over the antral area

Index finger is used to apply pressure over mastoid process - Tenderness indicates mastoiditis

Thumb is used to apply pressure over mastoid tip - Tenderness indicates mastoid emissary vein thrombophlebitis

Station 21:

microtia.jpg

Name the type of pinna seen here

Name some drugs which when ingested during pregnancy would cause this condition

Microtia

Warfarin, Folic acid antagonists like methotrexate and aminopterin

Station 22:

22 year male patient came with c/o swelling over right pinna - 4 days

Mild pain ++

No h/o fever

aur_sero.jpg

Name the possible pathology

How will you manage this condition ?

Aural seroma

Needle aspiration with application of compression dressing to prevent reaccumulation.

Station 23:

Perform Unterberger test on this patient

Narrate the aim of this test

What will happen if the patient has a paralytic labyrinthine lesion ?

What will happen in the presence of an active irritative lesion ?

1. Greet the patient.

2. Explain the procedure to the patient / take his consent

3. This test aims to reduce proprioceptive input

4. The patient will rotate to the side of a paralytic labyrinthine lesion

5. In the presence of an active and irritative lesion the patient cannot perform this test.

Procedure:

The patient is asked to stand with eyes closed and hands outstretched.

He is instructed to march on the spot.

Station 24:

30 year old male came with swelling & tenderness over right parotid area - 3 days duration

H/O Right ear discharge on and off - 3 months.

How could the infection from ear spread to the parotid gland ?

Spread of infections from mastoid and vice versa can occur through fissures of santorini.

This fissure is present over the cartilagenous portion of the external auditory canal.

Station 25:

pinna.jpg

Name the incision

Why is this area preferred ?

This is endaural incision used for mastoidectomy.

This area is devoid of cartilage.

Station 26:

exos.jpg

Why is this external auditory canal narrow ?

What could be the cause ?

What could be the clinical problems faced by the patient ?

What surgery should be performed in this patient ?

Exostosis of external auditory canal.

It is common in swimmers.

These patients have conductive deafness, cerumen impaction.

Cerumen impaction is caused by abnormal self cleansing mechanism of the skin lining external canal in these patients.

Canalplasty

Station 27

24 years old male patient

C/O Ringing sound in his left ear - 2 years
Hard of hearing left ear -8 months

Otoscopy finding:

glojug.jpg

What could be the possible diagnosis ?

Which cell gives rise to this condition ?

Glomus jugulare tumor

Paraganglia cells

Station 28

vra.jpg

Name the instrument ?

What is its use ?

It is a visual response audiometer.

It is used to screen infants for hearing disabilities.

Station 29

30 years old female patient came with c/o:

1. Recurrent fractures of Metatarsal bones

2. HOH both ears - 8 years

3. No h/o ear discharge

4. Puretone audiogram showed 60dB conductive deafness both ears

ost_impe.jpg

Image shows the patient.

What could be the possible diagnosis?

The patient shows blue sclera both eyes.

Possible diagnosis is osteogenesis imperfecta.
It is characterized by brittle bones, blue sclera and fixation of foot plate of stapes.

Station 30:

comp.jpg

What is this ?
Comment on this diagram

It is a laddergram of ABLB test (Alternate loudness balance test)

This laddergram indicates complete recruitment.. Recruitment is common in cochlear deafness. It is not seen in retrocochlear deafness.

Station 31:

30 years old male patient came with complaints of foul smelling discharge from his right ear - 10 days.
He also complained of mild pain in the right ear. Itching ++ in right ear.

Otoscopy picture is seen below:

myr_gra.jpg

Comment on the otoscopy picture. What could be the possible diagnosis?

Otoscopy picture shows a tongue of granualtion tissue over the inferior quadrant of the ear drum.
Ear drum is probably intact.
Diagnosis - ? Myringitis granulosa.

Mobility of ear drum should be tested to rule out ear drum perforation.

Station 32

12 years old female patient came with c/o swelling in front of right ear 4 years duration.

pre.JPG

What could be the probable diagnosis?

What complications could it cause?

What is the ideal treatment modality?

Name some syndromes associated with it?

The diagnosis is infected preauricular sinus.

It can get infected and abscess formation in that area can occur.

Surgical removal of the sinus tract completely is ideal.

Branchio oto renal syndrome, Branchio oto urethral syndrome, Branchio otic syndrome, cat eye syndrome, Trisomy 22

Should all patients with preauricular sinus undergo ultrasound abdomen?

No not necessary. To identify those patients who require abdominal ultrasound Wang's criteria should be used.
Wang's criteria include:

1. Presence of another malformation / Dysmorphic feature

2. Family history of deafness

3. Malformations involving pinna

4. Maternal history of gestational diabetes

Station 33

type_a.JPG

What is this image?

It is a tympanometry recording showing Type a curve.

What does this curve indicate?

This curve Suggests normal middle ear function. The compliance peak occur between -150 - +100 dapa. The value of compliance ranging between 0.2 - 2.5 millimhos. This type of curve is also known to occur in early stages of otosclerosis.

Station 34

Name the cranial nerves whose functions can be tested by using Impedance audiometry:

7th cranial nerve and 8th cranial nerve functions can be tested by performing this investigation.

Station 35

30 years old female patient came to the OPD with c/o:

Hard of hearing both sides – 4 years
Tinnitus on and off left ear – 6 months

O/e:

Ear drum on both sides appeared normal. They also showed normal mobility on siegalization.

Given below is the audiogram of the patient:

carhart_notch.jpg

What could be the probable diagnosis?
What do you see in the audiogram?

This patient is probably suffering from otosclerosis.

The audiogram shows carharts notch. It is classically seen in bone conduction audiogram of patients as a dip centered around 2000Hz.

Station 36

12 years old boy came with complaints of:

Swelling behind left ear - 5 days
Pain left ear - 7 days
H/O URI ++

O/E:

sp_abscess.JPG

What could be the probable differential diagnosis?
Can you name the most probable diagnosis? How?

DD:

1. Subperiosteal abscess
2. Otitis externa

Out of these two subperiosteal abscess is more probable because:

1. The post aural groove is not obliterated on the right side, which would be if the patient has
acute otitis externa.
2. Patient gives history of URI.

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