Look at the patient's face.
Examine his right external auditory canal
1. Name the syndrome
Ramsay Hunt syndrome
2. Name the causative organism
Varizella zoster virus
3. Name the other areas where rashes can be seen in this syndrome
Anterior 2/3 of tongue, soft palate, external auditory canal, and pinna
Name the various eye care procedures which should be followed in treating the patient at the previous station
1. Wearing of eye glasses to prevent corneal damage
2. Instilling moisturizing eye drops to prevent exposure keratitis
Name the instrument
Siegle's pneumatic aural speculum
Name it uses
1. Examination of ear drum
2. Testing the mobility of the ear drum
Write down its magnification factor
Examine the right ear of this patient
1. Describe the lesion
Cotton wool like mass seen occluding the external auditory canal. Black spots are also seen
2. What could be the probable diagnosis ?
3. What could be the causative organisms?
Aspergillus Niger - black spots
Candida - Cotton wool like mass
Perform otoscopy on this patient
Comment on the ear drum
1. Loss of light reflex
2. Prominence of handle of malleus
3. Loss of mobility of ear drum
4. Retracted ear drum
Name the structures numbered
1. Round window
2. Stapedial tendon
4. Long process of incus
Write down the possible causes of bilateral retracted ear drum
1. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
2. Following adenotonsillectomy (Iatrogenic)
3. Cleft palate
Comment on ear discharge of this patient
What could be the possible diagnosis ?
2. Foul smelling
3. Blood tinged (sometimes)
4. CSOM with attic cholesteatoma
Name this condition seen on the ear drum
Enumerate 3 causes for it
2. Due to resolved otitis media
4. Grommet insertion (Iatrogenic)
65 years old man
Known diabetic for 15 years on poor glycemic control
c/o pain left ear - 1 month
Blood stained discharge from left ear - 1 month
Tragal tenderness left side - 15 days
Inability to close left eye - 10 days
1. What could be the possible diagnosis ?
2. Name the probable causative organism
3. Name the choice of antibiotic
Malignant otitis externa
Psuedomonas aeruginosa is the probable causative organism
Carbenicillin / IV generation cephalosporins
Enumerate Levenson's criteria for malignant otitis externa
1. Refractory otitis externa
2. Severe nocturnal otalgia
3. Purulent otorrhoea
4. Granulation tissue in external canal
5. Growth of pseudomonas aeruginosa in specimen cultured from external canal
6. Presence of diabetes mellitus / other immunocompromised states
5 years old child
c/o excrutiating pain in right ear - 6 hours
H/O URI - 2 days
Name the diagnosis
Name the various stages of this disorder
Acute otitis media
Stages of acute otitis media:
1. Stage of hyperemia
2. Stage of exudation
3. Stage of suppuration
4. Stage of resolution
Name the surgery performed in AOM
Indication for surgery in AOM
AOM which does not respond to adequate medical managment within 48 hours
Post surgical otoscopic finding of a patient with AOM
Name the instrument used for this surgical procedure
Name the possible surgical complications of myringotomy
1. Dislocation of incudostapedial joint
2. Injury to corda tympani nerve
3. Persistent perforation
50 years old female patient came with
Pulsatile tinnitus - 3 years right ear
Hard of hearing - right ear 2 years
Pulsatile reddish mass seen behind the intact ear drum
Name the probable lesion
Name the classic sign shown here
What is the role of siegalization in this patient ?
Rising sun sign (Red mass seen behind the intact ear drum)
On siegalization the reddish mass behind the intact drum blances (Brown's sign)
Name the possible clinical features of glomus jugulare
2. Tinnitus (pulsatile)
5. Facial palsy
6. Endocrine symptoms
7. Head ache
8. Visual disturbances
Differential diagnosis of this lesion:
This is a red drum
Could be due to:
1. AOM - associated with otalgia
2. High jugular bulb - Normal variant. CT scan shows intact jugular foramen
3. Glomus jugulare - associated with pulsatile tinnitus, conductive deafness, positive Brown's sign. CT scan shows eorsion of jugular foramen.
40 years old male patient
C/O swelling behind left ear - 7 days
Pain in left ear - 4 days
H/O ear discharge - 8 years
What differential diagnosis you can offer ?
1. Subperiosteal abscess
2. Suppurated retroauricular lymph node
30 years old male patient came with c/o
Pain right ear - 1 week
Blocking sensation right ear - 10 days
Mild discharge from right ear - 1 week
Enumerate otoscopic findings
Mention the possible diagnosis
Mention in brief the pathophysiology of this disorder
Whitish mass admixed with wax can be seen in the external canal
The external canal appears widened
Probable diagnosis - Keratosis obturans
Kertosis obturans occur due to faulty epithelial migration of external canal skin. This movement occurs in a reverse direction in these patients (i.e. towards the ear drum)
Perform three finger test on this patient
Greet the patient first
Explain the procedure
Reassure the patient
Three fingers are used to perform this test.
Middle finger is used to apply pressure over the well of the concha - Tenderness in this area indicates tenderness over the antral area
Index finger is used to apply pressure over mastoid process - Tenderness indicates mastoiditis
Thumb is used to apply pressure over mastoid tip - Tenderness indicates mastoid emissary vein thrombophlebitis
Name the type of pinna seen here
Name some drugs which when ingested during pregnancy would cause this condition
Warfarin, Folic acid antagonists like methotrexate and aminopterin
22 year male patient came with c/o swelling over right pinna - 4 days
Mild pain ++
No h/o fever
Name the possible pathology
How will you manage this condition ?
Needle aspiration with application of compression dressing to prevent reaccumulation.
Perform Unterberger test on this patient
Narrate the aim of this test
What will happen if the patient has a paralytic labyrinthine lesion ?
What will happen in the presence of an active irritative lesion ?
1. Greet the patient.
2. Explain the procedure to the patient / take his consent
3. This test aims to reduce proprioceptive input
4. The patient will rotate to the side of a paralytic labyrinthine lesion
5. In the presence of an active and irritative lesion the patient cannot perform this test.
The patient is asked to stand with eyes closed and hands outstretched.
He is instructed to march on the spot.
30 year old male came with swelling & tenderness over right parotid area - 3 days duration
H/O Right ear discharge on and off - 3 months.
How could the infection from ear spread to the parotid gland ?
Spread of infections from mastoid and vice versa can occur through fissures of santorini.
This fissure is present over the cartilagenous portion of the external auditory canal.
Name the incision
Why is this area preferred ?
This is endaural incision used for mastoidectomy.
This area is devoid of cartilage.
Why is this external auditory canal narrow ?
What could be the cause ?
What could be the clinical problems faced by the patient ?
What surgery should be performed in this patient ?
Exostosis of external auditory canal.
It is common in swimmers.
These patients have conductive deafness, cerumen impaction.
Cerumen impaction is caused by abnormal self cleansing mechanism of the skin lining external canal in these patients.
24 years old male patient
C/O Ringing sound in his left ear - 2 years
Hard of hearing left ear -8 months
What could be the possible diagnosis ?
Which cell gives rise to this condition ?
Glomus jugulare tumor
Name the instrument ?
What is its use ?
It is a visual response audiometer.
It is used to screen infants for hearing disabilities.
30 years old female patient came with c/o:
1. Recurrent fractures of Metatarsal bones
2. HOH both ears - 8 years
3. No h/o ear discharge
4. Puretone audiogram showed 60dB conductive deafness both ears
Image shows the patient.
What could be the possible diagnosis?
The patient shows blue sclera both eyes.
Possible diagnosis is osteogenesis imperfecta.
It is characterized by brittle bones, blue sclera and fixation of foot plate of stapes.
What is this ?
Comment on this diagram
It is a laddergram of ABLB test (Alternate loudness balance test)
This laddergram indicates complete recruitment.. Recruitment is common in cochlear deafness. It is not seen in retrocochlear deafness.
30 years old male patient came with complaints of foul smelling discharge from his right ear - 10 days.
He also complained of mild pain in the right ear. Itching ++ in right ear.
Otoscopy picture is seen below:
Comment on the otoscopy picture. What could be the possible diagnosis?
Otoscopy picture shows a tongue of granualtion tissue over the inferior quadrant of the ear drum.
Ear drum is probably intact.
Diagnosis - ? Myringitis granulosa.
Mobility of ear drum should be tested to rule out ear drum perforation.
12 years old female patient came with c/o swelling in front of right ear 4 years duration.
What could be the probable diagnosis?
What complications could it cause?
What is the ideal treatment modality?
Name some syndromes associated with it?
The diagnosis is infected preauricular sinus.
It can get infected and abscess formation in that area can occur.
Surgical removal of the sinus tract completely is ideal.
Branchio oto renal syndrome, Branchio oto urethral syndrome, Branchio otic syndrome, cat eye syndrome, Trisomy 22
Should all patients with preauricular sinus undergo ultrasound abdomen?
No not necessary. To identify those patients who require abdominal ultrasound Wang's criteria should be used.
Wang's criteria include:
1. Presence of another malformation / Dysmorphic feature
2. Family history of deafness
3. Malformations involving pinna
4. Maternal history of gestational diabetes
What is this image?
It is a tympanometry recording showing Type a curve.
What does this curve indicate?
This curve Suggests normal middle ear function. The compliance peak occur between -150 - +100 dapa. The value of compliance ranging between 0.2 - 2.5 millimhos. This type of curve is also known to occur in early stages of otosclerosis.
Name the cranial nerves whose functions can be tested by using Impedance audiometry:
7th cranial nerve and 8th cranial nerve functions can be tested by performing this investigation.
30 years old female patient came to the OPD with c/o:
Hard of hearing both sides – 4 years
Tinnitus on and off left ear – 6 months
Ear drum on both sides appeared normal. They also showed normal mobility on siegalization.
Given below is the audiogram of the patient:
What could be the probable diagnosis?
What do you see in the audiogram?
This patient is probably suffering from otosclerosis.
The audiogram shows carharts notch. It is classically seen in bone conduction audiogram of patients as a dip centered around 2000Hz.
12 years old boy came with complaints of:
Swelling behind left ear - 5 days
Pain left ear - 7 days
H/O URI ++
What could be the probable differential diagnosis?
Can you name the most probable diagnosis? How?
1. Subperiosteal abscess
2. Otitis externa
Out of these two subperiosteal abscess is more probable because:
1. The post aural groove is not obliterated on the right side, which would be if the patient has
acute otitis externa.
2. Patient gives history of URI.